The application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication (Pritchard, 1969)

Evolve to quantify the process of written communication/academic publications. ‘Biblio’ is a combination of the Latin and Greek word ‘biblion’, which means books or documents. ‘Metric’ is a combination of the Latin and Greek words ‘metricus/metricos’, which implies the science of the meter. According to Ahmi (2021), bibliometrics measures a collection of documents' data properties(metadata). 

To quantify this definition, bibliometrists chose citation as the indicator: A publication cited frequently in other publications is important, and a publication cited rarely or not at all is less so (Ball, 2018).
Traditionally, bibliometric techniques have been employed to track connections between academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves reviewing an item's referencing documents, is utilized for locating materials and evaluating their worth. Citation indexes, such as the Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, enable users to conduct forward searches from a known article to more recent publications that cite the known item.

Information derived from citation indexes can be analyzed to assess the popularity and impact of specific articles, authors, and publications. For instance, utilizing citation analysis to gauge the importance of one's work has been prevalent in hiring practices during the late 20th century. Information scientists also employ citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications within particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from diverse institutions and schools of thought; and pertinent data regarding the sociology of academia. Some more practical applications of this information include planning retrospective bibliographies, "providing some indication both of the age of material used in a discipline and of the extent to which more recent publications supersede the older ones"; indicating, through high citation frequency, which documents should be archived; comparing the coverage of secondary services, which can assist publishers in assessing their accomplishments and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating "the effectiveness of their stock." There are, however, certain limitations to the value of citation data. They are frequently incomplete or biased; data has largely been collected manually (which is expensive), although citation indexes can also be utilized; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is necessary to genuinely comprehend the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied.
Bornmann, L. (2017). Measuring impact in research evaluations: a thorough discussion of methods for, effects of and problems with impact measurements. Higher Education, 73(5), 775–787.

Haustein, S., & Larivière, V. (2015). The Use of Bibliometrics for Assessing Research: Possibilities, Limitations and Adverse Effects. In Incentives and Performance: Governance of Research Organizations (pp. 121–139). Springer International Publishing.
In the world of academic and scientific publishing, altmetrics are a new metric used to measure the impact of research. Altmetrics differ from traditional metrics, such as the impact factor and the h-index, based on how many times a piece of research has been cited. Altmetrics, however, are based on how much attention some research has received online. This includes things like how many times it has been shared on social media, how many times it has been mentioned in news articles, and how many times it has been saved to reference managers.

Altmetrics are a more comprehensive way to measure the impact of research because they consider a more comprehensive range of factors than traditional metrics. They can also be a more accurate way to measure the research effect because they are not biased toward studies published in prestigious journals.

Altmetrics can be used for various purposes, such as evaluating research applications, making tenure and promotion decisions, and ranking newly published articles in academic search engines.

Overall, altmetrics are a valuable tool for measuring the impact of research. They are a more comprehensive and accurate way to measure the effect of research than traditional metrics, and they can be used for various purposes.
Several organizations, including ImpactStory, Altmetric, Plum Analytics, and Overton, are developing and calculating altmetrics. Numerous publishers, such as BioMed Central, Public Library of Science (PLOS), Frontiers, Nature Publishing Group, and Elsevier, have begun providing this information to readers. The NIHR Journals Library also incorporates altmetric data alongside its publications.

In 2008, the Journal of Medical Internet Research systematically collected tweets about its articles. Starting in March 2009, the Public Library of Science also implemented article-level metrics for all articles. Funding agencies, including the UK Medical Research Council, have expressed interest in alternative metrics. Researchers have utilized altmetrics in their promotion review applications. Moreover, several universities, including the University of Pittsburgh, are exploring altmetrics at an institutional level.
Priem, J., Taraborelli, D., Groth, P., & Neylon, C. (2010). Altmetrics: A manifesto.

Priem J, Groth P, Taraborelli D. (2012). The altmetrics collection. PLOS ONE, (7(11).